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Atomic Operations Provided in The sync/atomic Standard Package

Atomic operations are more primitive than other synchronization techniques. They are lockless and generally implemented directly at hardware level. In fact, they are often used in implementing other synchronization techniques.

Please note, many examples below are not concurrent programs. They are just for demonstration and explanation purposes, to show how to use the atomic functions provided in the sync/atomic standard package.

Overview of Atomic Operations Provided in Go

The sync/atomic standard package provides the following five atomic functions for an integer type T, where T must be any of int32, int64, uint32, uint64 and uintptr.
func AddT(addr *T, delta T)(new T)
func LoadT(addr *T) (val T)
func StoreT(addr *T, val T)
func SwapT(addr *T, new T) (old T)
func CompareAndSwapT(addr *T, old, new T) (swapped bool)
For example, the following five functions are provided for type int32.
func AddInt32(addr *int32, delta int32)(new int32)
func LoadInt32(addr *int32) (val int32)
func StoreInt32(addr *int32, val int32)
func SwapInt32(addr *int32, new int32) (old int32)
func CompareAndSwapInt32(addr *int32,
				old, new int32) (swapped bool)

The following four atomic functions are provided for (safe) pointer types. When these functions were introduced into the standard library, Go didn't support custom generics, so these functions are implemented through the unsafe pointer type unsafe.Pointer (the Go counterpart of C void*).
func LoadPointer(addr *unsafe.Pointer) (val unsafe.Pointer)
func StorePointer(addr *unsafe.Pointer, val unsafe.Pointer)
func SwapPointer(addr *unsafe.Pointer, new unsafe.Pointer,
				) (old unsafe.Pointer)
func CompareAndSwapPointer(addr *unsafe.Pointer,
				old, new unsafe.Pointer) (swapped bool)

There is not an AddPointer function for pointers, as Go pointers don't support arithmetic operations.

The sync/atomic standard package also provides a type Value. Its corresponding pointer type *Value has two methods, Load and Store. A Value value can be used to atomically load and store values of any type.
func (v *Value) Load() (x interface{})
func (v *Value) Store(x interface{})

The remaining of this article shows some examples on how to use the atomic operations provided in Go.

Atomic Operations for Integers

The following example shows how to do the add atomic operation on an int32 value by using the AddInt32 function. In this example, 1000 new concurrent goroutines are created by the main goroutine. Each of the new created goroutine increases the integer n by one. Atomic operations guarantee that there are no data races among these goroutines. In the end, 1000 is guaranteed to be printed.
package main

import (

func main() {
	var n int32
	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	for i := 0; i < 1000; i++ {
		go func() {
			atomic.AddInt32(&n, 1)

	fmt.Println(atomic.LoadInt32(&n)) // 1000

The StoreT and LoadT atomic functions are often used to implement the setter and getter methods of (the corresponding pointer type of) a type if the values of the type need to be used concurrently. For example,
type Page struct {
	views uint32

func (page *Page) SetViews(n uint32) {
	atomic.StoreUint32(&page.views, n)

func (page *Page) Views() uint32 {
	return atomic.LoadUint32(&page.views)

For a signed integer type T (int32 or int64), the second argument for a call to the AddT function can be a negative value, to do an atomic decrease operation. But how to do atomic decrease operations for values of an unsigned type T, such as uint32, uint64 and uintptr? There are two circumstances for the second unsigned arguments.
  1. For an unsigned variable v of type T, -v is legal in Go. So we can just pass -v as the second argument of an AddT call.
  2. For a positive constant integer c, -c is illegal to be used as the second argument of an AddT call (where T denotes an unsigned integer type). We can used ^T(c-1) as the second argument instead.

This ^T(v-1) trick also works for an unsigned variable v, but ^T(v-1) is less efficient than T(-v).

In the trick ^T(c-1), if c is a typed value and its type is exactly T, then the form can shortened as ^(c-1).

package main

import (

func main() {
	var (
		n uint64 = 97
		m uint64 = 1
		k int    = 2
	const (
		a        = 3
		b uint64 = 4
		c uint32 = 5
		d int    = 6

	show := fmt.Println
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, -m)
	show(n) // 96 (97 - 1)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, -uint64(k))
	show(n) // 94 (96 - 2)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, ^uint64(a - 1))
	show(n) // 91 (94 - 3)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, ^(b - 1))
	show(n) // 87 (91 - 4)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, ^uint64(c - 1))
	show(n) // 82 (87 - 5)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, ^uint64(d - 1))
	show(n) // 76 (82 - 6)
	x := b; atomic.AddUint64(&n, -x)
	show(n) // 72 (76 - 4)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, ^(m - 1))
	show(n) // 71 (72 - 1)
	atomic.AddUint64(&n, ^uint64(k - 1))
	show(n) // 69 (71 - 2)

A SwapT function call is like a StoreT function call, but returns the old value.

A CompareAndSwapT function call only applies the store operation when the current value matches the passed old value. The bool return result of the CompareAndSwapT function call indicates whether or not the store operation is applied.

package main

import (

func main() {
	var n int64 = 123
	var old = atomic.SwapInt64(&n, 789)
	fmt.Println(n, old) // 789 123
	swapped := atomic.CompareAndSwapInt64(&n, 123, 456)
	fmt.Println(swapped) // false
	fmt.Println(n)       // 789
	swapped = atomic.CompareAndSwapInt64(&n, 789, 456)
	fmt.Println(swapped) // true
	fmt.Println(n)       // 456

Please note, up to now (Go 1.18), atomic operations for 64-bit words, a.k.a., int64 and uint64 values, require the 64-bit words must be 8-byte aligned in memory. Please read memory layout for details.

Atomic Operations for Pointers

Above has mentioned that there are four functions provided in the sync/atomic standard package to do atomic pointer operations, with the help of unsafe pointers.

From the article type-unsafe pointers, we learn that, in Go, values of any pointer type can be explicitly converted to unsafe.Pointer, and vice versa. So values of *unsafe.Pointer type can also be explicitly converted to unsafe.Pointer, and vice versa.

The following example is not a concurrent program. It just shows how to do atomic pointer operations. In this example, T can be an arbitrary type.
package main

import (

type T struct {x int}
var pT *T

func main() {
	var unsafePPT = (*unsafe.Pointer)(unsafe.Pointer(&pT))
	var ta, tb = T{1}, T{2}
	// store
		unsafePPT, unsafe.Pointer(&ta))
	fmt.Println(pT) // &{1}
	// load
	pa1 := (*T)(atomic.LoadPointer(unsafePPT))
	fmt.Println(pa1 == &ta) // true
	// swap
	pa2 := atomic.SwapPointer(
		unsafePPT, unsafe.Pointer(&tb))
	fmt.Println((*T)(pa2) == &ta) // true
	fmt.Println(pT) // &{2}
	// compare and swap
	b := atomic.CompareAndSwapPointer(
		unsafePPT, pa2, unsafe.Pointer(&tb))
	fmt.Println(b) // false
	b = atomic.CompareAndSwapPointer(
		unsafePPT, unsafe.Pointer(&tb), pa2)
	fmt.Println(b) // true

Yes, it is quite verbose to use the pointer atomic functions. In fact, not only are the uses verbose, they are also not protected by the Go 1 compatibility guidelines, for these uses require to import the unsafe standard package.

Personally, I think the possibility is small that the legal pointer value atomic operations used in the above example will become illegal later. Even if they become illegal later, the go fix command provided in Go Toolchain should fix them with a later alternative new legal way. But, this is just my opinion, which is not authoritative.

If you do worry about the future legality of the pointer atomic operations used in the above example, you can use the atomic operations introduced in the next section for pointers, though the to be introduced operations are less efficient than the ones introduced in the current section.

Atomic Operations for Values of Arbitrary Types

The Value type provided in the sync/atomic standard package can be used to atomically load and store values of any type.

Type *Value has several methods: Load, Store, Swap and CompareAndSwap (The latter two are introduced in Go 1.17). The input parameter types of these methods are all interface{}. So any value may be passed to the calls to these methods. But for an addressable Value value v, once the v.Store() (a shorthand of (&v).Store()) call has ever been called, then the subsequent method calls on value v must also take argument values with the same concrete type as the argument of the first v.Store() call, otherwise, panics will occur. A nil interface argument will also make the v.Store() call panic.

An example:
package main

import (

func main() {
	type T struct {a, b, c int}
	var ta = T{1, 2, 3}
	var v atomic.Value
	var tb = v.Load().(T)
	fmt.Println(tb)       // {1 2 3}
	fmt.Println(ta == tb) // true

	v.Store("hello") // will panic
Another example (for Go 1.17+):
package main

import (

func main() {
	type T struct {a, b, c int}
	var x = T{1, 2, 3}
	var y = T{4, 5, 6}
	var z = T{7, 8, 9}
	var v atomic.Value
	fmt.Println(v) // {{1 2 3}}
	old := v.Swap(y)
	fmt.Println(v)       // {{4 5 6}}
	fmt.Println(old.(T)) // {1 2 3}
	swapped := v.CompareAndSwap(x, z)
	fmt.Println(swapped, v) // false {{4 5 6}}
	swapped = v.CompareAndSwap(y, z)
	fmt.Println(swapped, v) // true {{7 8 9}}

In fact, we can also use the atomic pointer functions explained in the last section to do atomic operations for values of any type, with one more level indirection. Both ways have their respective advantages and disadvantages. Which way should be used depends on the requirements in practice.

Memory Order Guarantee Made by Atomic Operations in Go

For easy using, Go atomic operations provided in the sync/atomic standard package are designed without any relations to memory ordering. At least the official documentation doesn't specify any memory order guarantees made by the sync/atomic standard package. Please read Go memory model for details.


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